Diocese of Ogdensburg

The Roman Catholic Church in Northern New York

The Science/Health Program of the schools of the Diocese of Ogdensburg is  based on the National Common Core Standard.   As with all of our educational programs, all instruction is centered in  our Catholic Faith foundation. In Grade 8 Science, students are expected to  apply ELA Core Standards of reading and writing as well as Math Core Standards  Practices (see respective sections for details of these sections).

The content of eighth  grade science is centered around the following Common Core domains: Structure, Properties  and Interactions of Matter

  • investigate and present evidence that  the structure of cells in both unicellular and multicellular organisms is  related to how cells function
  • investigate and generate evidence  that unicellular and multicellular organisms survive by obtaining food and  water, disposing of waste, and having an environment in which to live
  • construct an explanation for the  function of specific parts of cells including: nucleus, chloroplasts, and  mitochondria and the structure of the cell membrane and cell wall for  maintaining a stable internal environment
  • construct models and representations  of body systems to demonstrate how multiple interacting subsystems and  structures work together to accomplish specific functions
  • provide explanations of how sense  receptors respond to stimuli by sending messages to the brain to be processed  for immediate behavior or stored as information
  • communicate an explanation for how  the storage of long-term memories requires changes in the structure and  function of millions of interconnected nerve cells in the brain

Matter and Energy in Organisms  and Ecosystem

  • develop an explanation for the role  of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy on Earth
  • investigate the cycling of matter  among living and nonliving parts of ecosystems to explain the flow of energy  and conservation of matter
  • use a model to explain the transfer  of energy into, out of, and within ecosystem
  • construct and communicate models of  food webs that demonstrate the transfer of matter and energy among organisms  with an ecosystem
  • use evidence to support an  explanation that matter is conserved when molecules from food react with oxygen  in the environment and cycle repeatedly between living and non-living  components of ecosystem
  • use evidence to support arguments  that changing any physical or biological components of an ecosystem may result  in shifts in the populations of species in the ecosystem

Interdependent  Relationships in Ecosystems

  • use a model to demonstrate the effect  of resources availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an  ecosystem
  • construct explanations to describe  competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions as patterns across  various ecosystems
  • ask researchable questions about the  ways organisms obtain matter and energy across multiple and varied ecosystems
  • use models to explain the role of  biodiversity in ecosystems
  • use evidence to construct arguments  for how biodiversity can influence humans’ resources as well as ecosystem  services that humans rely on
  • pose questions about patterns in  social interactions and grouping behaviors of animals that contribute to  survival advantages

Natural Selection and  Adaptations

  • analyze and interpret patterns of  change in fossils to provide evidence of the history of life on Earth
  • construct explanations for the  anatomical similarities and differences between fossils of once-living  organisms and organisms living today
  • develop explanations for why most  individual organisms, as well as some entire species of organisms, that lived  in the past were never fossilized
  • recognize and compare patterns in the  embryological development across different species to identify relationships  not evident in the fully formed anatomy
  • communicate explanations for how  genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individual’s  probability of surviving and reproducing   in a specific environment which tends to increase these traits in the  population
  • use mathematical models to explain  how natural selection over many generations result in changes within species in  response to environmental conditions that increase or decrease certain traits  in a population
  • obtain and evaluate information about  how two populations of the same species’ different environments have evolved to  become separate species

Growth, Development, and Reproduction of Organisms

  • use evidence to support an  explanation of how environmental and genetic factors affect the growth of  organisms
  • investigate and present evidence that  plants continue to grow throughout their life through the production of new  plant matter via photosynthesis
  • use a model to construct an  explanation of how the genetic contribution from each parent through sexual  reproduction results in variation in offspring and how a sexual reproduction  results in offspring with identical genetic information
  • plan and conduct investigations to  gather evidence for the relationship among specialized plant structures,  specific animal behaviors, and the successful reproduction of the plant
  • use empirical evidence to support an  argument for how characteristic animal behaviors affect the probability of  successful reproduction of the plant
  • provide explanations of how changes  (mutations) to genes, which are located on chromosomes, affect specific  inherited traits resulting in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects
  • provide an explanation for the  relationship among changes (mutations) to genes, changes to the formation of  proteins, and the effect on the structure and function of the organism and  thereby traits
  • communicate explanations of ways technologies enable  humans to influence the inheritance of certain traits in plants